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On Chess: Are Chess Books Dying? – KBIA

I must confess. I have a very difficult time answering the classic question: Whats your favorite chess book? Heck, I dont know if I can even name the last chess book that Ive read to completion. As an International Master and chess coach, the inability to answer such a simple question could raise some eyebrows.

Perhaps 20 to 30 years ago, books were the dominant resource for learning chess. Today, this is no longer the case. Having begun my chess pursuit in the 21st century, the vast majority of my chess knowledge has been consumed through a computer. Between instructional videos, online lessons with grandmaster coaches, and the tens of thousands of games I have played online, I have been able to continually learn and develop as a player. A boom of young and improving players are taking a similar approach.

The influence of technology on education extends well beyond chess. Schools across the world are integrating technology into their curriculums to make learning experiences more interesting, interactive, and efficient. The chess community is taking advantage of the same opportunities. With just a wifi connection, learning chess is now easier and more accessible than ever.

Lets look at a website like The kid-friendly online platform gives young players access to a complete training curriculum, video lessons and over 50,000 chess puzzles. Also, users can compete against anyone from around the world. The advantages to a site like ChessKid over books are endless. Active engagement, interactivity, animation, progress tracking, and easy communication with other chess enthusiasts are all features which books cant provide.

Comparable platforms like Chessity,,, The Internet Chess Cluband many others offer users a vast amount of educational resources. Why buy a puzzle book, when you can solve over 30,000 tactics on Chess Tempo? Why buy a chess opening book when you can interactively learn hundreds of openings researched by grandmasters on Chessable? You can even access a whole host of chess lessons on YouTube, like the channel hosted by the Chess Club and Scholastic Center here in St. Louis that has over 100,00 subscribers.

It is an exciting time for chess. We are witnessing the brink of technologys influence on chess education. New websites and applications are emerging at a fast rate which are providing greater value and power for the learning chess player. Today, I can walk around with a 7-million game database and an engine as strong as IBMs Deep Blue in my back pocket. A couple decades ago, this would be unimaginable.

With the sheer amount of information across the web, its difficult to see how books can compete. Will chess books go extinct? Probably not anytime soon. To be fair, books are still a valuable resource especially the classics. They offer guidance and specializations in certain areas that could be difficult to locate online. Just go ahead and check out any book by MarkDvoretsky.

However, the popularity of physical chess books is certainly declining. If I were to read a chess book, I would much rather have it in a digital format where I could interactively play through the moves. As a chess player it is important to leverage the available resources and technologies to facilitate engaging learning and further improvement.

Eric Rosen is an international master and a member of the Webster University Chess Team. In 2011, he won the National K-12 Championships with a perfect 7/7 score. In addition to being an active tournament player, Rosen coaches students from all over the world via the internet.

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On Chess: Are Chess Books Dying? - KBIA

New data show most drivers use handheld devices – The Salinas Californian

MACGREGOR 'GOYA' EDDY 1:26 p.m. PT April 27, 2017

Motorists with handheld smart phones use them in 88 of every 100 trips, according to data released April 17 by Zendrive, a company that monitors driving behavior using sensors within the smart phone.

Previous, and much lower, estimates of distracted driving behavior were based on self-reporting. The data show that, on average, drivers spend 3.5 minutes of every hour manipulating their devices by hand. The study did not include hands-free activity, just using the smart phone manually.

The data was collected during 10 billion miles driven by 5 million motorists, the largest study ever done. Previous research has indicated that taking your eyes off the road for two seconds increases the likelihood of a collision by 24 times. (For details of the study see

April is Distracted Driving Awareness Month

Traffic collision deaths have risen sharply the past two years. The National Safely Council states that in a covering 2015-16, the increase in traffic collision deaths in the United States is the largest two-year jump in 50 years. With the use of seat belts and airbags, the mortality (death) rate of traffic collisions had been decreasing until the past few years, when this 14% jump occurred. The rapid increase of handheld devices while driving is one possible factor in the rising collision fatalities.

Which brings us to a reminder: You can text on a bus or train. The promoters of public transit are missing an educational opportunity to point out that you can text and use apps safely on a bus or a train. A lot of money is being spent on advertisements urging people not to text and drive, but I have not seen any linked to transit use.

When I suggest that people take the bus or try the train, most people say, Yes, Goya, but it takes longer. What do we do with extra time that is saved by taking the car? If texting, answering emails or using an app is one thing you do with your time (and research shows that for most of us that is true) then you can do that safely on the bus or train. Time stuck in traffic driving for hours feels wasted, so it is tempting to use the smart phone. I understand the temptation. I enjoy doing chess puzzles on my Android phone and, at bus stops, my time goes quickly.

Rail policy

Monday, 3 p.m., The Transportation Agency for Monterey County (TAMC) Rail Policy Committee will meet at 55 Plaza Circle Salinas. or call 775-0903.

Boronda Road widening

Wednesday, 6 p.m., McKinnon Elementary School, 2100 McKinnon St. Salinas city public works will hold a meeting about the widening of Boronda Road. Call Frank Aguayo at 758-7427 for details.

Wednesday, 6 p.m., The Transportation Agency for Monterey County (TAMC) Bicycle & Pedestrian Committee, 1 Sylvan Park, Sand City. May is Bike Month and for a list of county bicycle activities see or call 775-0903 or email:

May 7, 7 a.m., Salinas Criterium street bike race for cash prizes. Course is flat, five-corners (all left), corner of Moffett Street and La Guardia Street, Salinas, near the Airport. Registration: ($10). Info at

May 7, 10 a.m. to 2 p.m., Natividad Creek Park: Take it Outside Salinas. Free helmets for children and a fun bike rodeo, music, games and a human chess game. See

Send comments or questions to MacGregor Eddy (Goya) at

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New data show most drivers use handheld devices - The Salinas Californian

Can You Outsmart Our Elementary School Math Problems? – FiveThirtyEight

Apr. 7, 2017 at 8:00 AM

Welcome to The Riddler. Every week, I offer up problems related to the things we hold dear around here: math, logic and probability. There are two types: Riddler Express for those of you who want something bite-sized and Riddler Classic for those of you in the slow-puzzle movement. Submit a correct answer for either, and you may get a shoutout in next weeks column. If you need a hint, or if you have a favorite puzzle collecting dust in your attic, find me on Twitter.

From Trevor Ferril, some cafeteria multiplication:

Two intelligent, honest students are sitting together at lunch one day when their math teacher hands them each a card. Your cards each have an integer on them, the teacher tells them. The product of the two numbers is either 12, 15 or 18. The first to correctly guess the number on the others card wins.

The first student looks at her card and says, I dont know what your number is.

The second student looks at her card and says, I dont know what your number is, either.

The first student then says, Now I know your number.

What number is on the losers card?

Submit your answer

From Josh and Laura Pasek, another elementary school (but not elementary in difficulty) math problem:

Consider the following game. In front of you is a stack of 10 cards printed with the numbers 0 through 9, one per card. The stack is shuffled and, sight unseen, you draw a number from the top. You look at the number and place it somewhere in the multiplication equation below. You then draw another number, look at it, and place it somewhere else in the equation. You do that two more times, until all four slots are filled. Once a digit is placed, it cant be moved, and it cant be drawn again because its no longer in the stack.

Your goal is to build a multiplication equation with the lowest possible product. What is the optimal strategy? And how much of this game is luck and how much is skill? In other words, how much does the expected product under the optimal strategy differ from simply placing the cards randomly?

Submit your answer

Congratulations to Dan Mitchell of Minneapolis, winner of last weeks Express puzzle!

You and I agree to meet in our favorite park for a picnic. We each agree to arrive sometime between noon and 1 p.m., and we agree that whoever arrives first will wait for the other for up to 15 minutes before leaving to spend the day with a more punctual friend. If we each arrive at an independently random time during that hour, what are the chances well actually have lunch together?

The chances are 7/16. This is a problem that can be solved geometrically, which makes it a lot more convenient to answer. Lets start with a picture, with my possible arrival times on one axis and your possible arrival times on the other.

The shaded area is all the pairs of times that are within 15 minutes of one another that is, when we successfully meet up to picnic! Now we just need to calculate its area.

Work from the outside in. The area of the square is its width times its height, or one hour-squared. The area of each unshaded triangle is one-half its base times its height, and each of those dimensions are three-quarters of an hour in our case. So each triangle has an area of ()()(). That leaves our shaded area as 1-2(()()()) = 7/16. In other words, theres about a 44 percent chance well have lunch together. I like those odds!

Congratulations to Luke Robinson of Oakwood, Ohio, winner of last weeks Classic puzzle!

The U.S. Chess Championship is in full swing, and last week I offered up two groups of chess puzzles to get us in the chess mood.

First, on a standard chessboard, what is the largest number of each piece (kings, knights, bishops, rooks and queens) that can be placed such that none of the pieces attack each other? Second, on a standard chessboard, what is the smallest number of each piece that can be placed such that every empty square is under attack? A summary of the solutions is in the table.

And here are examples of what those solutions could look like on the board, created with Chess.coms board editor. First, the largest number such that no piece attacks another:

Some of these solutions are fairly straightforward. For example, a knight, by rule, always attacks squares of the opposite color of the square on which it sits. Therefore, you can put knights on all the black squares and be sure none will attack another. Half the squares are black, so you can deploy 32 knights in this way. (You may need to buy a few extra chess sets to do this, however!) Also fairly straightforward are the rooks. Given their north-south, east-west attacks, you can just string them up the boards main diagonal and theyll all remain safe.

The solution for queens, on the other hand, is more intricate. You can pack in eight of them safely, but youve got to be precise about how you do it. In fact, for larger chess boards of size N-by-N, you can always pack in N queens. For a standard board, there are 92 different arrangements of queens that will work.

Second, here are examples of the smallest number of pieces such that each empty square is attacked:

Again, for some pieces, the arrangements are straightforward. The rook, for example, bites off chunks of the board horizontally and vertically, so as long as they dont get in each others way, they can efficiently deploy their attack. Lining them up along the diagonal does that. The knights, however, with their L-shaped hopping, are trickier this time. It takes intricate trios of horsemen to successfully attack all the pesky squares in the corners.

And, once again, the queens might be the most interesting piece to think about. An extensive mathematical literature has sprung up around the queens problem. Whereas the rooks line up in a brutish diagonal phalanx to dominate the board, the five queens are snipers, and must be deployed wisely and intricately. Similar to the earlier problem, there are 91 arrangements that meet our criteria. Mathematicians have figured out the minimum number of queens needed to dominate boards of various sizes. You could also attack all 121 squares of an 11-by-11 board with just five queens!

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Can You Outsmart Our Elementary School Math Problems? - FiveThirtyEight

Desktop v Mobile the best platforms for online gaming – Live in Limbo

Desktop PC or mobile phone? Whats best for online gaming? Because, lets face it, most games released these days seem to require an internet connection to play. Be it the latest Steam titles, console games, or phone apps, online is increasingly baked into game titles at the point of creation.

From multiplayer lobbiesand team maps to online chat rooms, playing the latest titles means getting and staying online. If only to download critical game fixes that should have been tested during the development stage (wry wave at the Assassins Creed series), an online capability is usually required to enable the best gaming experience that the game can offer.

So, which to pick? Desktop versus phone: two platforms, one winner. Let battle commence.

Horses for courses

Actually, its a false equivalence, so no need for fisticuffs.

The question of which platform is best suited for you as a gamer depends in large part on the kind of games you like to play, and how you like to play them.

Game developers tailor their creations to the platform upon which they will be presented, playing to strengths and sidestepping weaknesses. A game app designed for smartphone play will have far different requirements than a game designed to be played on a high-end PC rig.

The range of games available for phone-based systems is vast and growing all the time. From heavy hitters like Nintendo to a wealth of indie game stables, theres plenty of choice to be had if youre on the hunt for something moreish to while away a coffee break.

How about a round or two of online bingo? Fabulous Bingo offers different game rooms, slots games as well as arewards system based on fab points. Or perhaps youre more of a chess person? In addition to a vast array of straightforward chess games, theres Chess Opening Blunders, a smartphone app for iPhone and Android designed to present you with smart chess puzzles to improve your skills. Or maybe you yearn for an esoteric puzzle game thatll tie your mind in knots. Whatever your preference, if youre looking for a quick yet satisfying burst of online gaming, your gaming tastes will be well catered for in any app store you care to mention. Smartphones(CC BY-ND 2.0)byinternetsense

Mobile games are well-suited to a quick burst of frenetic arcade-style gameplay, with cartoony visuals and lots of scrolling action. Those cabinet-sized game machines from the eighties paved the way for the home console market, which in turn has forged contemporary expectations of casual gaming addictive platformers with smooth parallax scrolling and colourful tile-sliding puzzlers make for a great way to showcase the sugar rush pick-up-and-play nature of what the mobile platform has to offer.

A top-range modern smartphone such as the iPhone 7 Plus ships with a scanty 3 GB of RAM, and an onboard memory which starts at a mere 32 GB. Specs like that would disappoint your average goldfish, but these limitations can be made to work in the platforms favour, and canny game designers pull this trick all the time; its what makes them canny game designers.

Big is better in the Desktop world

Alternatively, should your gaming tastes run to exploring massively immersive worlds where your character might roam all day and night without once bumping into a boundary wall, then you have hardware considerations to take into account. Youre going to be looking at the processing oomph of a high-end PC gaming rig in order to maximise your gaming pleasure. Or indeed to run your game at all.

Open world RPGs are generally anything but pick up and play or at least pick up and play well. They reward solid game hours with a level-based progress system, chaining quests for items and better kit.

If youre the kind of person who rates The Witcher 3: Wild Hunt over Candy Crush, then youre considering taking on a sprawling game that might take upwards of a hundred hours to complete. Thats a massive investment in time and energy and most especially graphics. Without a decent graphics card, your spiffy new game is a world that will remain forever closed off this game and others like it require a bare minimum of 6 GB of RAM, and earmarks hard drive space at around the whopping 40 GB mark. So it wouldnt even fit on a modern smartphone, even if the phone carried sufficient memory to hold it. And this is hardly an untypical example.

Your game, your choice

Horses for course, remember? The two platforms, PC and mobile, are entirely different platforms, built to do different things in different ways and for different reasons. If mobile games represent gaming on the go, then the PC games market is all about settling in for an evening session: a marathon over a sprint.

The gaming race you choose to run is ultimately up to you. Internet connectivity wont be going away anytime soon, so how you get online becomes less important than what you choose to play when youre there. So pick your game and have fun. Thats what its all about, after all.

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Desktop v Mobile the best platforms for online gaming - Live in Limbo

‘Chess Ultra’ is Bringing its Luxurious Game Environments to PSVR, Oculus Rift, and HTC Vive – Road to VR

Ripstone Games, makers ofPure Chess(2012),are bringing their upcoming sequel Chess Ultra to PlayStationVR, Oculus Rift and HTC Vive. The classic chess game features a number of beautifully rendered environments that will finally make youfeel like the rich and magnanimous Grandmaster you always knew youd becomeor a streetwise criminal whos broken into a closed museum to host underground chess games to the death. That last one sounds way more fun actually, but sadly not a part of the game.

Coming this spring, Chess Ultrawill offer the discerning chess Wunderkind10 different AI levels to battle against, a variety of finely crafted chess sets, and online play, something Ripstone promises will have plenty of game modes to keep you and your friends entertained online.

The developers are remaining tight-lipped on any specific features beyond the ones detailed above, but if the games PS3/PC predecessorPure Chesscan give any clues, its probably going to be packed with the standard smattering of chess puzzles, tournaments, and likely a robust tutorial to teach you all the ins-and-outs of the Kings Gamenot to mention environments spanning the usual offerings of posh penthouse apartments, English sitting rooms, and private libraries straight from Harry Potter. Although still unannounced, Im personally hoping for online avatars, specifically one with a captains hat and ascot so I can cosplay as the rich guy from Gilligans Island (1964).

Ripstone producer Kelly Willoughby says in a PlayStation blogpost announcing the game, that the company still has big surprises up our sleeves that we cant wait to shout about!

The game is also coming to PS4, Xbox and PC via Steam. Theres currently no official word on if the game will offer cross-platform multiplayer.

This article may contain affiliate links. If you click an affiliate link and buy a product we may receive a small commission which helps support the publication. See here for more information.

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'Chess Ultra' is Bringing its Luxurious Game Environments to PSVR, Oculus Rift, and HTC Vive - Road to VR

Shakira Ampaire all set for the Zonal Championships – Kawowo Sports

Shakira Ampaire

Kireka Chess Club player Shakira Ampaire has declared herself ready for the forthcoming Zone 4.2 African Individual Chess Championships that commence thirteen days from now at the Central Hotel, Jimma Ethiopia.

Ampaire, a league winner with Kireka last season secured her ticket to this years edition last month following her fourth-place finish at the Zonal Qualifiers.

In an interview with Kawowo Sports, Ampaire said: Im ready for this. I have been preparing for this mentally and training wise since last year.

But that doesnt mean I have stopped training. When you are preparing for tournaments like this, you prepare as much as you can. Sometimes you feel you want to do more and more thats why even Grand Masters prepare every day and before every game no matter how good they are. You cant prepare enough to be comfortable.

The 26-year-old says she uses video tutorials from International Chess Coaches and Grand Masters to analyse different strategic moves and also chess puzzles for her training.

And like any competitive mind, Ampaire who was MVP National University Sports Federation Uganda [NUSFU] in 2013 has her targets in Ethiopia set already.

She said: The target is to increase my rating and at a minimum, acquire a Woman Fide Master title. Victory for me in Ethiopia would be acquiring that title or more.

Who gets awarded at the Zonal Championships?

At the Zonal Championships, one must emerge champion in the Open category to earn the International Master [IM] or in the Women category to earn the Woman International Master [WIM] title.

For the FM or WFM title, the player must garner at least six points from nine games, and the Candidate Master [CM] or Woman Candidate Master [WCM] title goes to that player who collects at least 4.5 points.

Ampaires performance at continental level

Last year in July at the African Individual Chess Championships held here in Kampala, Ampaire finished 20th with 3.5 points. The rated 1423 managed just a couple of victories, drew thrice and lost as many games.

That was after she had missed an opportunity to attain the CM title following her ninth-place finish with 4 points at the Zonal Championships held in Dar es Salaam in April.

Asked whether she has improved since then, Ampaire said Yes! So much. I played with stronger players and got to learn from most of my mistakes so I have improved my game. I like to think of myself as a winner because I always come back up each time I am defeated and try to better myself.

After my game with the Angolan WIM (Domingos Maria M who she lost to in the final round at the Individuals) she showed me my blunder and how I was so close to drawing the game against her. So that showed me that I should believe in myself more and not worry about my lower rating when playing against the stronger players because they are also beatable.

Last year, I missed getting the title by a point in the Zonals. Thats why I want to do better this time around.

How she fared against stronger opponents at the African Individuals.

Ampaire drew against the South African duo of WCM Fisher Michelle M with a higher rating of 1696 and Van Niekerk Robyn Julian rated 1670, and claimed victory over Kenyan WCM Joyce Nyaruai [1563].

She lost to the Angolan WIM Domingos Maria M [1711], WFMs Goretti Angolikin [1605] and Christine Namaganda [1587] her fellow Ugandans.

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Shakira Ampaire all set for the Zonal Championships - Kawowo Sports

Chess Puzzles –

The best way to improve your chess is practicing! And the funniest way to practice is solving puzzles! Train your tactical abilities solving all kind of situations like the ones you'll find over a chess board at a real game.

You can play in unrated mode, just for fun, without recording your solving history. Or you can have full tracking of your progress solving in Rated mode. If you play in this mode you'll also obtain problems according to your current level.

Solve chess problems taken from real games. You should find the best continuation for you opponent's moves.

Train your abilities facing chess studies from the most complete database of problems, created by the greatest composers.

Good news! Only a few minutes every day solving puzzles and you will boost your chess!

If you want to improve your game the fastest, easiest and most fun way, start solving puzzles right now.

One thing that is absolutely undisputed in chess training philosophy is: solve tactical chess puzzles regularly and you'll get better and better everyday.

Train your abilities facing chess studies from the most complete database of problems, created by the greatest composers.

"My fascination for studies proved highly beneficial, it assisted the development of my aesthetic understanding of chess, and improved my endgame play" Vasily Smyslov

"I always urge players to study composed problems and endgames" Pal Benko.

Just a few samples of recently added games to our database.

Chess Composition

Chess Problem

Chess Composition

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Chess Puzzles -

Chess Problems, Puzzles, & Compositions – Chessopolis

135 Studies And Problems A whole career of composed problems from J.T. Sanderse.

Archives des problmistes In French. Problem site from Quebec.

Beautiful Chess Problems Only a few at the moment, but more promised.

Brunos Chess Problem of the Day Just like it sounds.

BYCA Chess Puzzles In addition to the collection of puzzles, features a puzzles league where you can participate in a friendly solving competition.

Chess Composition Microweb Featuring various sections on composed chess problems & problem-solving.

Chess Online Problems Problems galore. More added frequently.

Chess Problems Online A decent collection, intelligently displayed, from Mate in One to Mate in Six.

Chess Problems From Around The World Problems from everywhere.

Chess Problems Of 1001 Years Ago From the Chess Variants Homepage really old problems mainly of historical interest.

Chess Problems Unlimited Not quite unlimited, there are but several.

Chesspros Chess World Problems and instructive games.

Chess Puzzles by GMs Taken from the games of the greats.

Chess Puzzles Collection A nice collection taken from real games. Includes an index of the puzzles by theme.

CHEST Source code (in ANSI C) for a problem solving program.

Classic Chess Problems 2 and 3 movers from renowed composers.

Endgame Of The Day An endgame study a day. Also available as a mailing list.

Exeter Chess Club: Studies and Problems Intro to the world of problems.

GorFo Problem Chess Pages Has a problem of the month composed by the author, plus an archive of past problems.

Key Moves A new chess combination (from recent games) every week for your instruction and amusement.

Loiodices Chess Problems Lots of training positions to download.

Manolis Stratakis Chess Problems Page Pretty good page with plenty of problems and puzzles.

MateMaster Shareware software for solving chess problems.

Mater Will find any mate thats there, eventually.

Mat Plus The best chess problems from magazine Mat Plus.

Practical Chess Endgame Solve the endgame of the week.

Problemiste Chess Problem software.

Public Domain Chess Composition Books 19th Century (mostly) chess problem books in PDF format so you can print them out yourself. Nice!

Retractor Software for creating Retrograde Analysis chess problems.

The Retrograde Analysis Corner Retro problems and resources for retro enthusiasts.

Sack The King! A chess problem a day, with special animated interface to display the solution.

Solving Chess Tracking the world of competitive chess problem solving.

Torsten Lin Problem Chess Pages Problems and articles from noted composer. Some of the text in German.

Vincents Chess Problems Page Dozens of problems to pour over.

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Chess Problems, Puzzles, & Compositions - Chessopolis

Chess puzzle – Wikipedia

A chess puzzle is a puzzle in which knowledge of the pieces and rules of chess is used to solve logically a chess-related problem. The history of chess puzzles reaches back to the Middle Ages and has evolved since then.

Usually the goal is to find the single best, ideally aesthetic move or a series of single best moves in a chess position, which was created by a composer or is from a real game. But puzzles can also set different objectives. Examples include deducing the last move played, the location of a missing piece, or whether a player has lost the right to castle. Sometimes the objective is antithetical to normal chess, such as helping (or even compelling) the opponent to checkmate one's own king.

Whereas the term chess puzzle refers broadly to any puzzle involving aspects of chess, a chess problem is an orthodox puzzle (see below) in which one must play and win or draw a game, starting with a certain composition of pieces on the chess board, and playing within the standard rules of chess.

Orthodox chess problems involve positions that can arise from actual game play (although the process of getting to that position may be unrealistic). The most common orthodox chess puzzle takes the form of checkmate in n moves. The puzzle positions are seldom similar to positions from actual play, and the challenge is not to find a winning move, but rather to find the (usually unique) move which forces checkmate as rapidly as possible.

Heterodox chess problems involve conditions that are impossible with normal play, such as multiple kings or chess variants, while fairy chess problems employ pieces not used in orthodox chess, such as the amazon (a piece combining the powers of the queen and the knight).

Chess puzzles can also be regular positions from a game (with normal rules), usually meant as training positions, tactical or positional, from all phases of the game (openings, middlegame of endings). These are known as tactical puzzles. They can range from a simple "Mate in one" combination to a complex attack on the opponent's king. Solving tactical chess puzzles is a very common chess teaching technique. Although it is unlikely that the same position will occur in a game the student plays, the recognition of certain patterns can help to find a good move or plan in another position.

Some chess problems, like the Eight queens puzzle or the Knight's Tour, have connections to mathematics, especially to graph theory and combinatorics. Many famous mathematicians have studied such problems, including Euler, Legendre, and Gauss. Besides finding a solution to a particular puzzle, mathematicians are usually interested in counting the total number of possible solutions, finding solutions with certain properties, and generalization of the problems to nn or rectangular boards.

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Chess puzzle - Wikipedia

Chess Puzzles | Brilliant Math & Science Wiki

Practical exercises generally fall into one of two categories: tactics and analytics.

Tactics Puzzles In tactics puzzles, a position is presented with a forcing line of play available, making the goal to find that variation. Solving such puzzles improves one's tactical vision, awareness, and pattern recognition.

When faced with such puzzles, the general strategy is to analyze the position as one would a real game, but the solver has an advantage in knowing that a tactical blow is present. It then becomes even more beneficial to organize one's calculations in the following order:

It is rarely the case that the most accurate move in a tactical puzzle does not fall in one of the above categories.

Analytics Puzzles Analytics puzzles are much more involved, asking the solver to come up with a positional plan for the next few moves. Endgames, in particular, often involve little calculation and more long-term planning. These puzzles are not as commonly seen, however, because they demand a relatively high level of skill to reasonably approach, and because their somewhat subjective nature can make a proposed plan hard to judge, they are not automatable.

The next moves to consider are captures, revealing the solution: 1. Nxd5!

Black cannot recapture the knight with his pawn on c6, as the bishop on b5 would put him in check, and his queen is under attack. When his queen moves, White will also be able to capture the knight on e4, as it will no longer be defended by Black's queen. If Black tries to avoid this by playing 1... Qe6?, White wins the game by playing 2. Nc7 (check), attacking both the king and the queen simultaneously.

In the position below, which is the strongest move for White?

1. Re7 1. Rxc8 1. Qxc7 1. Qf3

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Chess Puzzles | Brilliant Math & Science Wiki

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